Yes! You can do this with the steps below:

  1. Double-click on the layer 
  2. Select Edit Object 
  3. Drag and select a shape
  4. Use Command + X to "cut" the image
  5. Tap Escape or Done to leave vector edit mode
  6. Use Cmd + V to paste in place

Now you can select the new "broken apart" shape and add a fill color.

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